Paper-I: Indian Philosophy(Epistemology and Meta Physics)

Syllabus: MA - Philosophy (Maharaja Ganga Singh University, Bikaner)

Note: There shall be three (03) Sections in the Question paper. Section A shall consist of ten questions (02 questions from each Unit), of 02 marks each, all compulsory to be answered in around 50 words. Section B shall consist of seven questions (at least 01 question from each Unit) of 08 marks each, to be answered in around 200 words. Five questions must be answered out of given seven. Section C shall consist of four questions (maximum 01 question from one Unit) of 20 marks each, to be answered in around 500 words. Two questions must be answered out of given four.

Duration: 3 Hrs. Max. Marks: 100


  • Cognition: Its definition and nature; valid (prama) and invalid (aprama); validity (pramanya); division of cognitions; classification of valid cognitions (prama); instruments (indriya) of valid cognition and their nature.
  • Validity of cognition: Its nature; condition and defintion. The debate about the nature, origin (utpatti) and ascertainment (jnapti) of validity, svatahpramanyavada, paratahpramanyavada, savisayatva, sakaratva, svaprakasatva, paraprakasata.


  • A study of pramanas: pratyaksa, anumana, sabda, upamana, arthapatti, anupalabdhi.
  • The theories about invalid perceptual cognitions (khyativada); akhyati anyathakhyati, viparitakhyati, atmakhyati, asatkhyati, anirvacaniyakhyati, satkhyati’ and sadasatkhyati.


  • God: the role of god in the world-views of classical systems: the new and central role of god in Bhakti schools starting with Ramanujacharya, Madhvacharya, N imbakacharya, Vallabhacharya, Ramananda.
  • Proofs for and against the existence of God: God as karmadhyaksa.


  • Atman, nairatmyavada, nature and proofs for Atman. Atman and Jiva; the Jiva as karta, bhokta, and jnata; different perspectives.
  • Nature of Bandhan and Mokahsa, and means of mokasha according to various schools of Indian Philosophy.


  • Universals: the debate amongst the different schools.
  • Causation: a comparative study of causality in different schools.

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